5 Basic Components of Electronics and Their Functions

When we study electronics, the first thing we have to do is learn and recognize the basic components of electronics. That way, we will more easily learn electronics and build an electronic system that can be implemented in everyday life. The following are 5 types of basic electronic components and their functions and symbols that you should know, consisting of resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transformers.

  1. Resistor
    Resistors if translated means prisoners or obstacles, which function to inhibit the current flowing in a closed circuit. The ability of resistors to inhibit our current is called resistance which is expressed in units of Ohm (Ω). The magnitude of the resistance value of a resistor can be seen from the color bands found on the resistor body.
    Image and Symbol Resistor
  2. Capacitors
    Capacitors are one of the 5 basic components of electronics whose function is important for you to know because they are often used. Capacitors or also called condensers are components that are capable of storing and releasing electrical charges.
    The unit of the capacitor is called Farad, which shows the ability of the capacitor to store an electric charge or capacitance. Farad was taken from the name Michael Faraday, a scientist who invented the capacitor.
  3. Inductor
    Inductors are components that are used as inductive loads. The inductor serves as an energy storage in the magnetic field due to the electrical voltage through it. The ideal inductor consists of wire wrapped around without a resistance value. The electrical properties of an inductor are determined by the length of the inductor, the diameter of the inductor, the number of turns, and the material surrounding it. The inductance of an inductor is expressed in Henry units.
  4. Diodes
    Diodes are electronic components that function to deliver electric current to one direction and inhibit electric current from the opposite direction. Diodes can also be used to control currents, namely as electronic switches. Diodes consist of 2 electrode components namely Anode and Cathode.
  5. Transistor
    The transistor is a basic component of electronics that you should know because it has many functions and is a component that plays a very important role in this modern electronic world. In principle, the transistor consists of two diodes which are joined together. The transistor consists of 3 legs namely Base (B), Collector (C), and Emitter (E). So that the transistor can work, the legs must be given a voltage, this voltage is called bias voltage. Base-Emitter is given forward voltage, while Base-Collector is given reverse voltage. The nature of the transistor is that between the Collector and Emitor there will be a current (the transistor will deliver) if there is a base current. The greater the base current the greater the delivery.
    Some transistor functions include as a current amplifier, as a switch, voltage stabilization, signal modulation, rectifier and so on.